- IQ Wealth Management partners with two major established Registered Investment Advisory firms for supervision and execution at Fidelity® Institutional
- Combined, our partners have more than $52 billion under management. You/we always have a succession plan.
- Our clients benefit from our access to an experienced team of CFA®s and CFP®s for research and Morningstar® reporting.
- Our clients enjoy world class resources, with a personalized local relationship, a focus on your risk tolerance and time horizon, and a fiduciary duty
- The Black Diamond Dividend Growth portfolio is conservative to moderate, with a focus on dividend growth stocks that have increased their dividends–CONSECUTIVELY–for 10 to 25 years or longer. The portfolio is designed to grow retirement wealth over time through reinvestment and compounding of increasing dividends.
- Many investors see dividend reinvestment both as a hedge against falling markets and a method of seeking alpha: during falling markets, your steadily increasing dividends continue to buy even more shares of quality companies at lower prices. Your dividends keep growing, and the number of shares keeps growing. “Boring” blue chip stocks become exciting when you own double the number of shares you started with, and the overall dividend yield of the portfolio rises to double digits–without investing another dime of your own money.
- Through the selection process, our objective is to unearth “wide moat” stocks, referred to by Warren Buffett as “virtual monopolies.” These are not one and done stocks, they are companies involved in the fabric of the economy with a “better mousetrap” and a durable business model, proven in the trenches.
- The objective is to focus on time rather than timing— combined with relentless dividend growth. Any stock that does not raise its dividend is removed from the portfolio.
- NO MLPS, NO K-1’S. Your accountant will like that. Also, no tobacco or energy stocks. We see political controversy there–not worth it in our view. Our objective is a clean portfolio of larger cap, highly liquid stocks in non-controversial industries. Our objective is to require the dividend to be paid from profits, not borrowed money.
- The Blue Diamond Technology portfolio is moderate to aggressive, with approximately 25% allocation to dividend growth ETFs, PLUS approximately 75% allocation to strategic growth sectors including aerospace & defense, cloud computing, robotics, medical technology, semi-conductors and microchips, internet commerce (FANGS), software, and cyber-security (scroll down for more on the Blue Diamond Dividend and Growth strategy.
- Neither portfolio holds any bonds. We believe bonds are poorly positioned in this interest rate environment and belong outside of growth portfolios. Our strategy favors the use of Next Generation income and growth annuities vs bonds (zero advisor fees)
Annual Investment Advisory Fees
$100,000 to $499,999 .95%
$500,000 to $999,999 .85%
Asset Custodian: Fidelity Institutional member FINRA, SIPC
- Accounts are billed monthly in arrears (See Investment Advisory Agreement)
There is no separate Wealth Management or planning fee. Many of our clients also choose annuities in a separate bucket. There are no separate fees for annuities or for completing a written retirement income plan when IQ Wealth is the agent implementing your investments.
No Additional Fees For Management:
There are no additional fees or expenses to manage and supervise your investments. The Black Diamond and Blue Diamond portfolios are “wrap” accounts. This means that all trading and transaction costs are born by IQ Wealth Management and wrapped into your management fee. We share the fee with our execution and research team at AE Wealth Management. Our investment management firm accepts no commissions on any securities transactions. There are no set up fees for either account.
There is no charge for an occasional withdrawal. The Portfolio is designed as a total return portfolio with dividends reinvested each quarter. However if income is desired, quarterly withdrawals may be arranged with a charge of $25 per disbursement to cover the costs of handling, filing, and accounting. The income processing fee is waived on portfolios of $300,000 or more, or by approval of manager.
Have a no-cost, no obligation conversation with an experienced adviser and fiduciary.
Steve only accepts 6 to 12 new clients per month in order to serve each with optimal attention and personal service.
Free Retirement Readiness Review
Learn more about the IQ Wealth proven approach to practical planning. To arrange your free review, please contact Barb at (480)902-3333, or email: Barb@IQWealth.com
THE IQ WEALTH BLACK DIAMOND DIVIDEND™ GROWTH STRATEGY
AIMING FOR EXCELLENCE
The return on a stock market investment is twofold. First is the dividend, which pays the stockholder an ongoing cash return on investment capital. The second is the growth in the price of the shares, which offers the investor the possibility of selling at a profit. Investors who ignore dividends often find it difficult to time not only the buy side but the sell side of a stock.
At IQ Wealth, we turn to statistical research and mathematics to provide an evidence-based approach to the stock market and achieving Alpha. Market timing is difficult. You invite “gaps” into your list of tasks that must be dealt with. Too often, investors guess at when to get in and when to get out.
Rather than being sporadic, dividend reinvestment provides tangible returns consistently to the investor. Those dividends fill in the gaps. Stocks that pay steady dividends offer a tangible return in the here and now. The increasing dividends received by Black Diamond stocks are used to acquire ever more shares while stock prices are lower, keeping the investor “in the game”, buying low and accumulating even more shares. Non-dividend payers rely strictly on price increases and either skill or luck in selling “some day” in the future–before, during, or after “the gap.”. If you aren’t sure of the optimal day to sell (who is?), your strategy may be on thinner ice than you would like. We invite you to explore the Black Diamond Dividend strategy as part of your plan for retirement.
Every Stock In the IQ Wealth Black Diamond Dividend portfolio has raised its dividend a minimum of 10 years, including 2008 and 2009. Every stock has an investment grade credit rating with solid earnings. We avoid the volatility of the energy and tobacco sectors.
The IQ Wealth BLACK DIAMOND Dividend™ Portfolio is suitable for those investors who:
- Seek a systematic, rules-based approach to investing for long term growth and total return though up and down market cycles.
- Consider themselves conservative to moderate in their investment profile
- Prefer owning companies paying consistently growing dividends
- Place a value on companies which have delivered consistent dividends through both up and down economic cycles, with at least ten consecutive years of dividend increases, combined with consistent profitability and lower debt
- Prefer an approach focused on “wide moat” companies showing leadership in their industries
- Prefer owning companies with a strong investment grade credit rating (no “junk”)
- Understand the long term compounding benefits of reinvesting dividends over time
- Are comfortable investing in a portfolio that consists of both individual stocks in the large and mid-cap categories, plus ETFs following similar guidelines.
Not just “Dividend Payers”, Dividend GROWERS.
For reference, explore the information compiled by Ned Davis Research comparing Dividend Paying stocks, Dividend Growers, Non-Dividend paying stocks, and Dividend Cutters. A Dividend Grower is a stock with not only consistently growing dividends, but a record for CONSECUTIVE dividend growth, year after year.
In the period from January 31 1987 through January 31 2016:
- Dividend Growers averaged a return of 13.8%
- Dividend Non-Changers (no consecutive increase in dividends) averaged a 10.1% return
- Dividend Non-Payers averaged a 7.4% return
- Dividend Cutters averaged a 6.6% return
- S & P 500 Annualized (with no dividends) average: 7.072%
- S & P 500 Annualized (with dividends reinvested) average: 9.45%
Source: Ned Davis Research, Proshares
Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Invest wisely with a diversified approach.
Because Quality Matters
The portfolio includes a combination of individual stocks as well as carefully selected dividend paying ETFs. All stocks and ETFs in the portfolio are selected based on their documented track record of increasing their dividends every year without fail for a minimum of ten consecutive years. ETFs in the portfolio contain stocks which have increased their dividends a minimum of 25 years or longer.
The portfolio does not hold any bonds or bond mutual funds. Management tends to hold an allocation of cash, however, to act both as a buffer during volatile times, and to provide “dry powder” for purchasing stocks at better prices after market corrections.
1) Optimize the power of reinvested dividends from companies with a consistent and consecutive record of increasing dividends. While a “consistent” record of raising dividends each year is desirable, our approach is much more disciplined. We require a minimum of 10 CONSECUTIVE years of increasing dividends from each company in order to allow the stock into the portfolio. The portfolio is designed focus both on individual stocks as well as carefully selected dividend ETFs. For an ETF to be considered, management prefers 25 years of increasing dividends. These stocks are known as Dividend Champions and Dividend Aristocrats. Our objective is to own only those companies which INCREASED their dividends both in 2008 and 2009.
2) Focus on quality and value rather than technical timing. The portfolio is for the long term value investor who seeks to capitalize on compounding of steady dividends over the long run. New stock selections for the portfolio require a minimum of a 3% dividend yield to enter the portfolio. While not all stocks with a 3% dividend qualify for the portfolio, we utilize the 3% factor as one method of finding value (dividend yield is related to share price. A rising share price tends to lower the dividend yield. A falling share price tends to raise the dividend yield)
3) Focus both on “offense” and “defense” simultaneously. Our goal with the Black Diamond is not to “chase” the market. Each year, a different category of stocks rises to the top of the Dow and S&P. One year it is pure growth, the next it may be real estate, and the next it may be dividend payers. We want to stay on offense, but we believe that having a good defense is a winning philosophy (what goes up will one day go down.) By holding quality assets, it is our belief that overheated markets will find their way back to the positions we hold. Our goal is to remain consistent, and let the market find its way back to our area of focus: value, income (through dividends), and specifically–companies which consistently grow earnings and dividends. We believe that increasing the cash position during overheated markets is another example of playing both offense and defense. The objective with a strong cash position is to achieve a) a level of protection against sudden and severe market declines b) the ability to buy high quality stocks at lower prices during and after corrections.
The IQ Wealth Black Diamond Dividend portfolio is not a mutual fund. It is a professionally managed account consisting of dividend-paying stocks and ETFs, rebalanced quarterly. As a fiduciary, Wealth Management Firm, and Scottsdale Financial Planner, our firm accepts no commissions on the portfolio. The investor may hold the portfolio at Fidelity Institutional or TD Ameritrade. Our objective is to provide effective and to help your financial plan with low cost Investing In Dividends and using Dividend Investing to grow retirement wealth.
¹All information on this page is intended as educational and conceptual. Past performance of all assets, including stocks, bonds, real estate, and the economy, should never be relied upon to predict future results. This example is intended to illustrate how the reinvestment of dividends can accumulate more shares over time, and can potentially lead to increasing total returns through compounding.
THE IQ WEALTH Blue Diamond Technology Leaders™ PORTFOLIO
In addition to the Black Diamond Dividend Strategy, focused purely on consistent high-value dividend growers, IQ Wealth Management offers access to the Blue Diamond Income & Growth Portfolio–which combines a focus on dividends but with an equal focus on Growth-only stocks in key sectors.
We believe these sectors are critical to the functioning of our economy heading into a higher tech world.
Objective, Philosophy, and Focus:
The portfolio is designed for entry at any time, combining dividend growth with price appreciation. The Blue Diamond consists of Sector ETFs. The sectors we have selected are as follows (with a few key of companies in parentheses):
- U.S. Aerospace & Defense (Northrup, Lockheed Martin, and more )
- Robotics (leaders in the field)
- Genetic Science (leaders in innovation of treatment and vaccines for virus and bacterial disease)
- U.S. Semi-Conductor, Micro Processor, and Chip Makers needed for Artificial Intelligence (Micron Technologies, Cree, Nvidia, ON, and more)
- Healthcare / Pharma / Biotech / Consumer Cyclical (Biogen, Amgen, Pfizer, Visa +)
- Internet Technology and Commerce (Amazon, Facebook, Netflix, Alphabet, twitter, & more–FANGS +)
- Medical Devices and Medical Technology (Medtronic, Abbott, Thermo Fisher Scientific +)
- Cloud Computing (Leaders in the field)
- North American Tech Software Companies (Oracle, Microsoft, Adobe, Activision Blizzard, +)
- Electronic Gaming (massive growth worldwide)
- Emerging Market Internet & E-commerce (Alibaba, Ten Cent, JD +)
- Cyber Security (firms engaged in the protection and prevention of ID theft and system hacks)
Why We Are Focused On These Sectors
Looking ahead to 2025, there will be many changes, with more of an emphasis on Artificial Intelligence. Highly credible “future thinkers” like Bill Gates and Gartner Company are predicting that 45% of all jobs currently being performed by humans will be done by machines (robots and computers) between 2025 and 2028. Some industries and companies may completely disappear. What companies and sectors are hard wired into the circuitry that will take us from where we are today and not only be surviving but potentially thriving in 2025 and beyond? This is the question we asked ourselves when conceiving and constructing the Blue Diamond.
The above sectors make up approximately 75% of the portfolio. The balance is invested in Dividend Aristocrat and Dividend Champion positions–ETFs holding stocks which have increased their dividends for 25 years or longer. Therefore the Blue Diamond is consistent with our philosophy of maintaining both “Offense” and “Defense” positions simultaneously with several methods of growing capital. With the Blue Diamond, you are more intently focused no growth, however, you still receive enough dividends to cover all costs of owning the portfolio.
In a bull market, “everyone’s a genius” —A rising tide lifts all boats. But where are the markets going in the next three, five, and ten years?
You want to be successful in the future, not just today.
Because institutional investors and professional traders tend to stay ahead of the amateur investor (who may not have the time, talent, nor inclination to devote to analysis), it is important to identify where institutional buyers are looking. We believe the above sectors in combination with Dividend Growers gives our clients a balanced and strong way to take advantage of those trends.
While markets can become volatile, our goal with both the Black Diamond and Blue Diamond portfolios is not to chase the market, but rather entrench ourselves where we believe the market will be heading.
The IQ Wealth Blue Diamond Income and Growth portfolio is not a mutual fund. It is a managed portfolio account consisting of dividend-paying stocks and ETFs, rebalanced quarterly. As a fiduciary, our firm accepts no commissions on the portfolio. Management fee is a “wrap” arrangement: no additional trading costs are assessed. The investor may hold the portfolio at Fidelity or TD Ameritrade. We believe that using a simple wrap fee method, where you pay no extra costs, is a hallmark of a high ethics wealth management firm.
The IQ Wealth BLUE DIAMOND Income & Growth™ Portfolio is suitable for those investors who:
- Require a systematic, rules-based approach to investing for long term growth and total return.
- Consider themselves moderate to moderately aggressive in their investment profile
- Prefer owning companies paying consistently growing dividends along with pure growth companies
- Place a value on companies which have delivered consistent dividends as well as companies showing leadership in technology, cybersecurity, aerospace/defense, semi-conductors, communication, and e commerce.
- Place a value on holding companies in the “pathway to progress” in the future
- Require ownership of dividend stocks with a strong investment grade credit rating (no “junk”)
- Understand the long term compounding benefits of reinvesting dividends over time
- Are comfortable investing in a portfolio that consists of carefully selected ETFs for diversification
Why We Place An Emphasis On Dividends In Both Portfolios
Getting paid to own your investments is always a good thing. In fact, dividends can be thought of as the key difference between a pure speculation and an investment. Investments in dividends offer a continuous return to the owner, with the potential for compounding through reinvestment. In our financial bucketing system for your retirement, we believe that dividend reinvestment over time can help you to grow your nest egg. There is a benefit to a dividend dreinvestment strategy, even during down markets. When markets decline, quality dividend stocks continue to pay you growing dividends. Those growing dividends, reinvested, are buying even more shares “at a discount.” This is the secret to dividend investing. This is one of the many ways that our wealth management firm, a financial planner in Scottsdale, Arizona, can help you with investing In Dividends and using Dividend Investing to grow retirement wealth.
Investors today are faced with one of the more challenging investment environments in decades:
- Markets are overvalued by traditional measures, the current bull market is “long in the tooth” compared to other bulls, economies are quite uncertain, and interest rates are at historically low levels. The result is that the investor may have fewer clear options for growing and preserving their retirement capital.
- With this challenging set of realities, it’s not easy for investors to make their own quality financial decisions. Successful long-term investment planning has grown quite complex, specialized, and challenging–even more challenging for the do-it-yourselfer or day-trader.
- In comparing investment strategies of the past twenty to fifty years, research often leads an investor back to holding quality dividend stocks–and reinvesting those dividends for compounded growth over time. In our bucketing methodology for financial planning, we believe that dividends belong in bucket 3–the Growth Bucket. While a basket of quality dividend stocks won’t beat the S & P every year, the background and statistics are compelling for dividend stocks.
Should you stay in cash, or remain partially invested in today's market?
Consider your choices:
- Door #1: Remain fully invested— “full steam ahead regardless of market valuations”, with a hodge-podge of mixed strategies, hunches, internet tips, and guesswork.
- Door #2: Try to time the market—believing its possible to know “when to be in” and “when to be out” (even though the best investors in the world like Warren Buffett and Peter Lynch have proclaimed it impossible)
- Door #3: Pull out of the market completely until the next crash, keeping all money in cash or “under the mattress”
- Door #4: Buy and hold the indexes, making no withdrawals, going up and down with the markets, with no clear strategy for capitalizing on downturns, accepting diluted dividend yields, and simply waiting 10 to 20 years for the results. This is a strategy for the extremely patient and optimistic.
- Door # 5: Hire a money manager to try to do all of the above (in the name of diversification)
- Door # 6: Begin a dividend investing strategy that pays the investor to own shares of profitable companies with high traditional valuations, with lower debt ratios, and which are confirmed leaders in their industries. With this strategy you actively require that every company you own is profitable every year, and in fact is increasing its earnings. You require they share their profits by paying steady dividends at predictable intervals in increasing amounts. If not, you trim the company from the portfolio at each quarterly rebalancing. You select companies paying a dividend yield—in relation to their share price—of 3% or higher. However, you do not choose any shares based on dividend yield alone. You require that the companies in your portfolio are those that increase those dividends every year, and have a documentable track record of doing so, for ten years or longer.
If “Door number 6” appeals to you—we invite you to explore our professionally managed portfolios:
OBJECTIVE: INVESTING WITH A CLEAR STRATEGY
- Both the Black Diamond and Blue Diamond Dividend Portfolios are comprised predominantly of domestic large cap stocks, with some focus on larger mid cap stocks that exhibit the required dividend performance and history. The Black Diamond Dividend portfolio holds a combination of individual stocks and ETFs. The Blue Diamond holds no individual stocks. It consists purely of ETFs and a small cash position.
- Diversification is primarily derived from holding multiple stock selections at all times, increasing the cash position at certain times, and including the use of Exchange Traded Funds for a portion of the portfolio.
- The ETFs in the Black Diamond are predominantly Dividend “Aristocrats” comprised of stocks which have increased their dividends a minimum of 25 years or longer. ETFs typically may comprise 12% of the portfolio.
Note: The Black Diamond and Blue Diamond Portfolios are not mutual funds. They are privately managed accounts for our clients only. Each client’s portfolio is managed within a single separate account and not as part of a pooled fund. Each client has 24/7 access to reporting at Fidelity Investments, and is held in it’s own SIPC account with SEC cusip number.
- Prior to selection, all investments are quality assessed and approved based on credit rating, balance sheet, volatility, dividend paying history, yield, and liquidity
- Minimum Investment is $100,000 (CAN BE A COMBINATION OF BLACK AND BLUE DIAMOND PORTFOLIO’S) and can be transferred as cash or ‘in-kind’ securities.
Ready for the next step? Schedule your Free Review here, or call us at (480)902-3333
Methodology and Supervision: Additional Notes
Thanks to healthier lifestyles, new prescription drugs and medical technology, people are living longer than ever before. However, one drawback to a longer life is the greater possibility of outliving your savings—creating all the more reason to develop a retirement income plan designed to last a longer lifetime.
The IQ Wealth Management investment philosophy is to start with income planning and work toward more opportunistic investments only after the income gap is filled on a solid basis.
A significant investment loss in the years just prior to and/or just after you retire can have a damaging impact on the level of income you receive over the course of your life. In fact, research has shown that the earlier a loss occurs in retirement, the greater the chance of depleting your retirement savings.
We can help you design an income plan which integrates insurance, annuity and investment vehicles to create opportunities for long-term growth as well as to guarantee income throughout your retirement—in a tax favorable manner.
Neither the Company nor its agents or representatives may give tax, legal, or accounting advice. Individuals should consult with a professional specializing in these areas regarding the applicability of this information to his/her situation.
PORTFOLIO CONSTRUCTION: Black Diamond
Under our current philosophy and rules, a fully invested portfolio generally will be allocated with 88% individual dividend-paying equities and 12% dividend exchange traded funds (ETFs).
As the PE ratio of the S & P rises above 20, management may choose to reduce the percentage committed to equities.
For example, with PE ratios on the S & P at the 25 level, the equity commitment may roll back to 85%, partitioning 15% to cash. Management believes this is a prudent step that may reduce volatility and keep “dry powder” available to accumulate more shares in the event of a pullback.
After a correction in the market, the objective of management is to remain fully invested.
BLACK DIAMOND EQUITY HOLDINGS
The portfolio will typically hold 15-30 individual equities, with a target of 22 holdings. There are two primary screens for selection:
- In order to select a stock, a current dividend yield of 3% or greater.
- A dividend-paying history of 10 consecutive years or more, of stable or increasing dividends. An interruption, suspension, or cutting of a dividend will exclude a stock from the portfolio. No tobacco, oil, or master limited partnerships (simplifies taxes–no K-1s. Investment grade credit rating
The preferred length of time for stable or increasing dividends is 25 years. Stocks with this characteristic are known as “Dividend Aristocrats.” Stocks with at least 10 consecutive years of dividend growth are known as Dividend Achievers, and qualify for the portfolio.
It is our objective that Dividend Aristocrats will comprise a minimum of 30% of the individual securities. Exceptions may be made but only in the instance that we deem it necessary to add more stock selections for diversification.
Securities that meet the initial two screening criteria are then evaluated on the following fundamental information:
- Normalized Price/Earnings: We look for companies with a current price below the valuation indicated by normalized earnings, as evaluated by the calibrated software system.
- Debt/Equity: A ratio of 50% or less is desired.
- Debt Coverage: A ratio of 3:1 or greater is preferred.
- Earnings Growth: Target 5-10% or greater.
- Dividend Growth: 1% or greater (4%-12% dividend growth preferred)
- Payout Ratio: Objective, less than 60%.
- Cash Flow Per Share: Equal to or greater than the industry average.
- Credit Rating: Investment grade only.
- Subjective Factors: Include industry and company outlook; competitive advantages; management quality.
EXCHANGE TRADED FUND (ETF) CORE PORTFOLIO
In addition to pure equity positions, the Black Diamond Dividend Portfolio™ includes a core portfolio of dividend paying ETFs. The underlying securities in these ETFs consist of companies that have raised their dividend for 10 years or more. The ETFs selected represent various asset classes to provide portfolio diversification. The ETFs include S&P 500, mid-cap, small-cap, and European Dividend Achievers. These ETFs are chosen for the purpose of broadening the diversification of the portfolio. They often may not meet the 3% dividend yield minimum which is a focus on individual equity selections.
While the Black Diamond Dividend Portfolio and its holdings are continuously monitored, rebalancing takes place on a quarterly basis. If an individual equity’s dividend yield has fallen below 3%, it is scrutinized to determine the cause of the decline. If the fall is due to a lowering of the dividend, it is removed from the portfolio. If the decline is due to an increase in price, the holding may remain in the portfolio for a maximum of two quarters. We would prefer to take profits when rising share value leads to a falling dividend yield.
The portfolio is not a mutual fund but rather a separately managed account focused on a systematic method of equity selection. The Team uses quarterly rebalancing to maintain portfolio standards. The goal is that no trades will be made between the quarters unless a company in the Portfolio announces an earnings or dividend decrease, or the Team deems an increase in the cash position is warranted due to extreme economic conditions. Consultation with an experienced, qualified financial adviser is recommended before investment. Different types of investments involve varying degrees of risk, and there can be no assurance that any specific investment strategy will be profitable. The use of IQWM offered investment models and strategies may be appropriate for certain investors as part of their overall investment strategy. An investment should be made only after a financial advisor has reviewed the prospective investor’s risk tolerance, time horizon, and investment objectives
A security’s indicated yield is the most recently announced dividend, annualized based on the security’s dividend frequency, then divided by the Security’s current market price. These distributions are not guaranteed and can fluctuate. A dividend yield is not an interest rate. It is a percent of the share price. The total annual return of the portfolio is a combination of annual distributions and price fluctuation which can be positive or negative.
There are no “loads”, front or back end, to the portfolio, and no 12B1 fees on our services, due to the fact that the portfolio is not a mutual fund. The ETFS in the portfolio, which make up 12% or less—will have their own internal fees over which we have no control.Past performance of any security or index should never be relied upon to predict future results. Stock markets and individual stocks may be subject to large price fluctuations. Diversification cannot guarantee to protect an investor from these fluctuations. Although the portfolios seek low volatility and principal protection, asset allocation decisions may not achieve these goals in all cases. There is no guarantee a portfolio will meet a target return or investment objective. The investor is investing in the stated methodology, not past performance. Client has 24/7 access to view the selections in real time and may cease the portfolio if he or she so chooses.. If the client believes that any change to the portfolio falls outside the stated rules for selection, the account may be terminated, typically the next trading day, without a load or surrender charge. There may be a nominal fee of not more than $75 to close the account.. (Messages left on our answering system do not constitute an order to trade. Email or written instructions are required.)